Vo Minh Tap
Britain, France, the U.S. is the developed capitalist countries, with position, major influence on international politics. Historical development and the creation of political forces of a country depends on many factors and it provides significant value and important reference for many countries.
Organizational models and operational mechanisms of the political system of the three countries have basic similarities but also contain sharp differences:
- The formation and development of the political system of the three countries have a long history and experienced many ups and downs step (England after the revolution the bourgeois monarchy followed the 1640 General Resolution; France after the way 1789 under the capitalist network may be a combination of the Parliamentary Republic with a Republican President-amphibians; the U.S. after the revolution the bourgeois republic under the President).
- All three countries have a long history of constitutional, in these countries, the Constitution is the fundamental law as a legal basis for the organization and operation of the state in particular and said the political system general. The role of the Constitution and the law are always respected.
- The political system of the three countries are pluralistic political system, most opposition parties. Position and role of political parties is crucial to political and social.
- All three countries have applied the doctrine of separation of powers Montesqiueu in the organization and operation of the state apparatus. English, French, Americans are seen as crucial for the control power through multiple channels, multiple measures are made public and are effective ..
- Parliament of the three countries are organized and operated under the structure of two houses: Senate and House of Representatives.
- The political system of the three countries are built on the basis of civil society. Civil society becomes political base of the political system in general and the particular state. With development and affirmation of the progressive values of democracy, civil society has been gradually formed and confirmed in the politics of this country.
- The political system of the three countries are the political aims of the working class, social strata, especially the ruling class.
2. Net difference:
a. Historical and constitutional role of the constitution:
- UK: Britain in Anglo-Sacxong school, unwritten constitution, the regulations on organization and operation of the state apparatus are in the legal documents (laws and basic rules of traditional) . Britain is proud to be the home of Parliament and the Constitution. Nature writing first Constitution was born in the British bourgeois revolution (1640-1654) with the name: "Forms of State ruled England, Scotland, the Netherlands and the colonies they" in 1953.
- FRANCE: The school of civil law with written constitutions. After 1789 the French bourgeois revolution, in 1791, marking the birth constitutional milestone for the constitutional history of France. Constitutional history has witnessed many changes in the Constitution, also the government change-the organization and operation of power. Since the 1958 Constitution, with the advent of the fifth republic, the political model may actually go on to stability and development today.
- America: The case of law schools with the introduction of the Constitution of 1776 and takes effect today, but also remodeling and additions. The maintenance of this effect is because the mail is the nature and regulatory framework principles, and American society has shaped the revolution and do not vary too big.
b. Regarding the role of political parties in political life: If in the UK and U.S. two-party dominant regime-partisan mode (typical British Conservative two-party system represents the center-right and the Labor Party faction representing the Chinese text, has two Republican U.S. and Democracy), which turns the two major parties in power through election at the election shall exist in French multi-party regime with many political parties capable of ruling (French Socialist Party, the party collection, the National Front party ..)
c. On the mode of organization and operation of the state apparatus and power control mechanisms:
- U.S.: The U.S. delegation is under strict school and tough. American polity is a republic with the president heads the executive position as President, and shall assist the President as the first secretary of state and ministers .. The relationship between the legislative, executive and judiciary clearly isolated, pure, but the executive can override other rights.
- In France: the French can be a combination of government and Parliament of the Republic President in the presence of the president and government to exercise executive power. Decentralization in France proved flexible and more versatile. President heads the executive, the Prime Minister and the executive government responsible to the President and Congress. President can dissolve the House. In contrast, the House may not pass the budget and the President's policy. Oil processing is the control of power within the executive branch in France. This is the sharing of power between the President and Prime Minister, makes the executive branch has the ability to control power.
- In England: the presence of the king (queen) with a symbolic meaning rather than real power, it can be in the UK is the Parliamentary monarchy. Head of the executive chairman is the Prime Minister of the majority party in the House appointed by the Queen .. British Prime Minister has great power and grasp the whole system of British law enforcement. England is also represented institutional regime Prime Minister.
Three countries Britain, France, the United States in each country have different power-sharing between the Senate and House of Representatives. If the U.S. has a balance of power between the Senate and House of Representatives, then in Britain and France, the House has an important role and authority over, the underlying cause is the lower house elected by the people and representatives power of the people.
Through a comparison of a number of points on the political system of the three countries Britain, France, the U.S. ships that the organization and operation of political systems of the three countries have basic similarities but also contain different definitions . This is a result of many factors such as economic, cultural tradition, national history, social psychology, level of democracy, of each different historical period, situation and specific conditions of each country.
2. Nguyen Thu Phuong, French Presidential Election: the old story, but like new, Journal of European Studies, No. 5 / 2002.
3. Nguyen Van Huyen, Duc Thao Tong, Some characteristics of the organization and operation of the political system of Britain, France, the U.S. perspective of comparative political science, Journal of European Studies, No. 1 / 2007.